Modular dynamics in diamonds

Romeo Brunetti, Valter Moretti
September 25, 2010
We investigate the relation between the actions of Tomita-Takesaki modular operators for local von Neumann algebras in the vacuum for free massive and massless bosons in four dimensional Minkowskian spacetime. In particular, we prove a long-standing conjecture that says that the generators of the mentioned actions differ by a pseudo-differential operator of order zero. To get that, one needs a careful analysis of the interplay of the theories in the bulk and at the boundary of double cones (a.k.a. diamonds). After introducing some technicalities, we prove the crucial result that the vacuum state for massive bosons in the bulk of a double cone restricts to a KMS state at its boundary, and that the restriction of the algebra at the boundary does not depend anymore on the mass. The origin of such result lies in a careful treatment of classical Cauchy and Goursat problems for the Klein-Gordon equation as well as the application of known general mathematical techniques, concerning the interplay of algebraic structures related with the bulk and algebraic structures related with the boundary of the double cone, arising from quantum field theories in curved spacetime. Our procedure gives explicit formulas for the modular group and its generator in terms of integral operators acting on symplectic space of solutions of massive Klein-Gordon Cauchy problem.