State independence for tunneling processes through black hole horizons and Hawking radiation

Valter Moretti, Nicola Pinamonti
November 12, 2010
Tunneling processes through black hole horizons have recently been investigated in the framework of WKB theory discovering interesting interplay with the Hawking radiation. In this paper we instead adopt the point of view proper of QFT in curved spacetime, namely, we use a suitable scaling limit technique to obtain the leading order of the correlation function related with some tunneling process through a Killing horizon. The computation is done for certain large class of reference quantum states for scalar fields. In the limit of sharp localization either on the external side or on opposite sides of the horizon, the quantum correlation functions appear to have thermal nature, where in both cases the characteristic temperature is the Hawking one. Our approach is valid for every stationary charged rotating non extremal black hole, however, since the computation is completely local, it covers the case of a Killing horizon which just temporarily exists in some finite region too. These results give a strong support to the idea that the Hawking radiation, which is detected at future infinity and needs some global structures to be defined, is actually related to a local phenomenon taking place even for local geometric structures (local Killing horizons) existing just for a while.