# Quantum gauge models without classical Higgs mechanism

Michael Dütsch, José M. Gracia-Bondía, Florian Scheck, Joseph C. Varilly
January 06, 2010
We examine the status of massive gauge theories, such as those usually obtained by spontaneous symmetry breakdown, from the viewpoint of causal (Epstein-Glaser) renormalization. The BRS formulation of gauge invariance in this framework, starting from canonical quantization of massive (as well as massless) vector bosons as fundamental entities, and proceeding perturbatively, allows one to rederive the reductive group symmetry of interactions, the need for scalar fields in gauge theory, and the covariant derivative. Thus the presence of higgs particles is explained without recourse to a Higgs(-Englert-Brout-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble) mechanism. Along the way, we dispel doubts about the compatibility of causal gauge invariance with grand unified theories.