Quantum particle localization observables on Cauchy surfaces of Minkowski spacetime and their causal properties

Carmine De Rosa, Valter Moretti
February 21, 2024
We introduce and study a general notion of spatial localization on spacelike smooth Cauchy surfaces of quantum systems in Minkowski spacetime. The notion is constructed in terms of a coherent family of normalized POVMs, one for each said Cauchy surface. We prove that a family of POVMs of this type automatically satisfies a causality condition which generalizes Castrigiano's one and implies it when restricting to flat spacelike Cauchy surfaces. As a consequence no conflict with Hegerfeldt's theorem arises. We furthermore prove that such families of POVMs do exist for massive Klein-Gordon particles, since some of them are extensions of already known spatial localization observables. These are construted out of positive definite kernels or are defined in terms of the stress-energy tensor operator. Some further features of these structures are investigated, in particular, the relation with the triple of Newton-Wigner selfadjoint operators and a modified form of Heisenberg inequality in the rest $3$-spaces of Minkowski reference frames.