Asymptotic charges, large gauge transformations and inequivalence of different gauges in external current QED

Wojciech Dybalski, Benedikt Wegener
July 15, 2019
In this paper we consider external current QED in the Coulomb gauge and in axial gauges for various spatial directions of the axis. For a non-zero electric charge of the current, we demonstrate that any two different gauges from this class correspond to quantum theories which are not unitarily equivalent. We show that the spacelike asymptotic flux of the electromagnetic field is the underlying superselected quantity. We also express the large gauge transformation linking two distinct axial gauges by the Wilson loop over a contour limited by the two axes. Thus the underlying physical mechanism appears to be related to the Aharonov-Bohm effect.