Strict deformation quantization of the state space of $M_k(\mathbb{C})$ with applications to the Curie-Weiss model

Klaas Landsman, Valter Moretti, Christiaan J. F. van de Ven
September 24, 2019
Increasing tensor powers of the $k\times k$ matrices $M_k({\mathbb{C}})$ are known to give rise to a continuous bundle of $C^*$-algebras over $I=\{0\}\cup 1/\mathbb{N}\subset[0,1]$ with fibers $A_{1/N}=M_k({\mathbb{C}})^{\otimes N}$ and $A_0=C(X_k)$, where $X_k=S(M_k({\mathbb{C}}))$, the state space of $M_k({\mathbb{C}})$, which is canonically a compact Poisson manifold (with stratified boundary). Our first result is the existence of a strict deformation quantization of $X_k$ \`{a} la Rieffel, defined by perfectly natural quantization maps $Q_{1/N}: \tilde{A}_0\rightarrow A_{1/N}$ (where $\tilde{A}_0$ is an equally natural dense Poisson subalgebra of $A_0$). We apply this quantization formalism to the Curie--Weiss model (an exemplary quantum spin with long-range forces) in the parameter domain where its $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry is spontaneously broken in the thermodynamic limit $N\to\infty$. If this limit is taken with respect to the macroscopic observables of the model (as opposed to the quasi-local observables), it yields a classical theory with phase space $X_2\cong B^3$ (i.e\ the unit three-ball in $\mathbb{R}^3$). Our quantization map then enables us to take the classical limit of the sequence of (unique) algebraic vector states induced by the ground state eigenvectors $\Psi_N^{(0)}$ of this model as $N\to\infty$, in which the sequence converges to a probability measure $\mu$ on the associated classical phase space $X_2$. This measure is a symmetric convex sum of two Dirac measures related by the underlying $\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetry of the model, and as such the classical limit exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking, too. Our proof of convergence is heavily based on Perelomov-style coherent spin states and at some stage it relies on (quite strong) numerical evidence. Hence the proof is not completely analytic, but somewhat hybrid.

Deformation quantization, Strict Quantization Map, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Curie-Weiss model