Strict deformation quantization of the state space of $M_k(\mathbb{C})$ with applications to the Curie-Weiss model

Klaas Landsman, Valter Moretti, Christiaan J. F. van de Ven
September 24, 2019
Increasing tensor powers of the $k\times k$ matrices $M_k({\mathbb{C}})$ are known to give rise to a continuous bundle of $C^*$-algebras over $I=\{0\}\cup 1/\mathbb{N}\subset[0,1]$ with fibers $A_{1/N}=M_k({\mathbb{C}})^{\otimes N}$ and $A_0=C(X_k)$, where $X_k=S(M_k({\mathbb{C}}))$, the state space of $M_k({\mathbb{C}})$, which is canonically a compact Poisson manifold (with stratified boundary). Our first result is the existence of a strict deformation quantization of $X_k$ \`{a} la Rieffel, defined by perfectly natural quantization maps $Q_{1/N}: \tilde{A}_0\rightarrow A_{1/N}$ (where $\tilde{A}_0$ is an equally natural dense Poisson subalgebra of $A_0$). We apply this quantization formalism to the Curie--Weiss model (an exemplary quantum spin with long-range forces) in the parameter domain where its $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry is spontaneously broken in the thermodynamic limit $N\to\infty$. If this limit is taken with respect to the macroscopic observables of the model (as opposed to the quasi-local observables), it yields a classical theory with phase space $X_2\cong B^3$ (i.e\ the unit three-ball in $\mathbb{R}^3$). Our quantization map then enables us to take the classical limit of the sequence of (unique) algebraic vector states induced by the ground state eigenvectors $\Psi_N^{(0)}$ of this model as $N\to\infty$, in which the sequence converges to a probability measure $\mu$ on the associated classical phase space $X_2$. This measure is a symmetric convex sum of two Dirac measures related by the underlying $\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetry of the model, and as such the classical limit exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking, too. Our proof of convergence is heavily based on Perelomov-style coherent spin states and at some stage it relies on (quite strong) numerical evidence. Hence the proof is not completely analytic, but somewhat hybrid.
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@article{, key = "1756317", author = "Landsman, Klaas and Moretti, Valter and van de Ven, Christiaan J. F.", title = "{Strict deformation quantization of the state space of $M_k(\mathbb{C})$ with applications to the Curie-Weiss model}", eprint = "1909.10947", archivePrefix = "arXiv", primaryClass = "math-ph", SLACcitation = "%%CITATION = ARXIV:1909.10947;%%" }

Keywords: 
Deformation quantization, Strict Quantization Map, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Curie-Weiss model